Fermions may travel to a 5th dimension. As the building blocks of life, fermions make everything we know possible. Now, scientists believe fermions might also create mysterious dark matter as they travel via portals.
Importantly, dark matter makes up the vast majority (75% or more) of matter in the universe. Nevertheless, nobody knows exactly what it is. The mysterious matter’s presence indicates a new physics model is needed since it doesn’t conform with the standard model.
Recently, scientists have been learning more, suggesting that enormous tubular structures of dark matter connect galaxies in a spinning cosmic web. However, researchers don’t know why it’s spinning. Possibly, gravity plays some role.
Now, a new study suggests one of the two types of fundamental particles in the universe, fermions, may act as dark matter.
Fermions and Portals to the 5th Dimension
To understand the new research, it helps to review what fermions are.
Fermions, the ‘Subatomic Cats’
Fermions and bosons are the two types of known particles in the universe sharing completely different quantum rules.
For example, only fermions have antiparticle counterparts, and no two fermions occupy the same quantum state, unlike bosons. That’s why fermions have been dubbed the standoffish “subatomic cats” who don’t like to mix, while bosons are sociable “puppies of the subatomic world.” (see video below)
Due to these characteristics, fermions are “responsible for the physical and chemical properties of the elements, for the huge variety of molecular configurations we have today, and for the fundamental bonds that make complex chemistry and life possible,” according to Forbes.
Another key way that fermions and bosons differ is in how they spin. Particles with a spin in half-integer multiples (fractions such as ±1/2) are fermions and have antisymmetric wave functions. On the other hand, particles with full integer multiples (like ±1) are bosons with symmetric wave functions. (see video)
See more from Fermilab:
Fermions and Portals to another Dimension
Now with a very basic understanding of fermions, and their importance, consider the astounding findings in the new research.
The study is the first to apply the “warped-geometry higher-dimensional universe” model first proposed in 1999 to explain how dark matter works.
As summarized by Popular Mechanics:
“The scientists studied fermion masses, which they believe could be communicated into the fifth dimension through portals, creating dark matter relics and “fermionic dark matter” within the fifth dimension.”
That’s right: dimension-traveling fermions entering a “warped” dimension.
After somehow going through a portal, (how?) the fermion masses begin “acting as” dark matter. According to 5-dimensional field equations, a new, heavy particle with heavy mass is predicted created “via a detour through the extra dimension.”
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Searching For Gravitational Waves
Soon, the latest advances in gravitational wave detectors could allow scientists to test out their incredible concepts. Indirectly, researchers could detect particles by observing ripples in spacetime.
Matthias Neubert, head of the research team, stated:
“In the end – so our hope – the new particle may be discovered first through its interactions with the dark sector.”
About five years ago, physicists first detected gravitational waves set off when black holes collide. Since then, scientists across the planet have been rapidly working to advance detectors.
By 2030, new, more sensitive detectors could lead to “mind-boggling” leaps in knowledge about how the universe works.
One US model design could be over 40 kilometers (over 24 miles) long.
If the research is verified we can add an extra dimension to the four that humans can comprehend: 3D space and time. However, there may be others, at least seven.
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Eleven Dimensions and the ‘Mind of God’
According to a model proposed using string theory, there are eleven dimensions. And, all matter exists on strings that reach outward into extra dimensions, including fermions.
In this multiverse model, dark energy is the force responsible for expanding a bubble at the edges of our universe. Outside this bubble, there are other expanding bubble universes all expanding. Together, the vibrating bubbles produce a kind of “cosmic music.”
To physicist Michio Kaku, the cosmic music resonating through 11 dimensions could be the “Mind of God” described by Albert Einstein.
“…Remember that each bubble vibrates, and each bubble vibrating creates music. The music of these membranes is the subatomic particles. Each subatomic particle represents a note on a vibrating string or vibrating membrane,” says physicist Michio Kaku.
One wonders what that music must sound like, and how the notes change as they travel across other dimensions.
See Michio Kaku talk about 11 dimensions from Big Think on Youtube.
Featured image by 7thDwarf via Pixabay, Pixabay License